Carbonate Petrography

Carbonate petrography is the study of limestones, dolomites and associated deposits under optical or electron microscopes greatly enhances field studies or core observations and can provide a frame of reference for geochemical studies.

25 strangest Geologic Formations on Earth

The strangest formations on Earth.

What causes Earthquake?

Of these various reasons, faulting related to plate movements is by far the most significant. In other words, most earthquakes are due to slip on faults.

The Geologic Column

As stated earlier, no one locality on Earth provides a complete record of our planet’s history, because stratigraphic columns can contain unconformities. But by correlating rocks from locality to locality at millions of places around the world, geologists have pieced together a composite stratigraphic column, called the geologic column, that represents the entirety of Earth history.

Folds and Foliations

Geometry of Folds Imagine a carpet lying flat on the floor. Push on one end of the carpet, and it will wrinkle or contort into a series of wavelike curves. Stresses developed during mountain building can similarly warp or bend bedding and foliation (or other planar features) in rock. The result a curve in the shape of a rock layer is called a fold.

Showing posts with label pakistan. Show all posts
Showing posts with label pakistan. Show all posts

"Why I left Electrical Engineering and choose Geology?" with Rana Faizan

About author: Rana Faizan is currently in his third year of under graduation in Applied Geology at Institute of Geology at University of the Punjab in Lahore, Pakistan. He is interested in Petroleum Geology, Structural Geology, Sedimentology and Tectonics.         

When I was studying in the 8th grade, my father had a wish to make me an Electrical Engineer. Honestly speaking at that time I have no idea about my future goals and even I didn’t knew anything about Electrical Engineering.

One day I was in my class, my teacher gave us a lecture on future planning which really inspired me to think about future aims. This was the first time I started thinking about my future goals. I reached home and asked my father about this concern. He advised me to choose Electrical Engineering in future and told me that this is his dream about me. At that time, I was not familiar with the Geology. Days were passed and I completed my 10th grade exams with good percentage and took admission in 11th grade (pre-engineering), and I started study hard to fulfill my parent’s dream.

Then a day come, my father was sharing his university life experiences with me and this was the first time I heard about Geology because his hostel mates were Geology students. My father told me about the geology field work experience that his friends shared with him. And his friend is currently settled in Canada and working as a Geologist. He told me about some more people and some of them are now my professors.

These all things sums up and gave me inspiration about geology, I searched about geology on internet and I found it an interesting field as geologists ruin tourism in their daily life. They can work in natural resource companies, environmental consulting companies, government agencies, non-profit organizations, and universities. Many geologists do field work at least part of the time. Others spend their time in laboratories, classrooms or offices. All geologists prepare reports, do calculations and use computers. I found that geology is a practical and professional field, all sciences and engineering required geology work in some disciplines. Another thing is the study of mountains, different rocks, minerals, structures and more over their observations in field with naked eye is so interesting. Moreover thin section study and geological mapping was another cause that inspired me to pursue my career in this field.

Due to all these things, I mentally prepared myself to choose geology in future but my father wanted me to become an engineer.

After few months, I completed my 12th grade with good percentage and I applied for electrical engineering as per my father’s wish. And I also applied for geology as per my wish. Unfortunately, I didn’t get admission in any geology institute and get admission in electrical engineering. My parents were very happy because their wish was near to fulfill at that time but I was not so happy because I wanted admission in geology. Then unwillingly, I have to study the electrical engineering. This was little bit interesting subject for me especially circuits. I liked working on C++ programming. I completed my first semester with good CGPA and got 2nd position but still I wasn’t satisfied in this field. 

Next year, when I was studying 2nd semester in engineering, the admissions in geology get opened and again I tried to get admission in this field but my parents, relatives and friends even my engineering professors advised me that I should not leave this field (engineering) now because that decision would effected my future and one year of my study would be wasted. I listened to my heart voice and applied for admission and I was surprised to know that I got admission in geology. I left engineering and join geology field. My friends and professors of engineering institute asked me again not to leave this field. I still remembered, I simply told them that I don’t want high marks, I want to fulfil my interests so that I can give my 100% in that work. I thought what if I done electrical engineering with good percentages and get job. But what if I am not satisfied with my decision then what is the benefit of that job? Geology may not give me highly paid jobs easily as I could find in electrical engineering but I would definitely find peace and satisfaction in geology.

Me (left) discussing geological map of Pakistan with my class mate (right).
Photo © Rana Faizan 
Describing about Salt Range (Sub-Himalayas) model
Photo © Rana Faizan 
Now, I’m studying geology and I am fully satisfied with my decision. I have completed my two and half years of bachelor’s degree with three field works and I have learnt many things about geology. I found all things as same as I imagined, when I was in 12th grade. This was my dream that one day I will become a geologist and will study from the same institute from my father’s friends have studied. Everyone has its own interest. Some like engineering, some like medical and some go for other. My purpose here is not to degrade anyone especially electrical engineering students, no doubt it is also a good field as technology is becoming a need of everyone. So, I have an advice for everyone, always listen to your own decisions and do not bother what other say.

Selfie at Harno River, Abbottabad, Pakistan.
Photo © Rana Faizan 
Had a rainy fieldwork at Indus River, Pakistan
Photo © Rana Faizan 
I still remember a quote:

                    "Think 100 times before you take a decision,

But once that decision is taken, stand by it as one man."

We have a lot of hidden potential that we don’t know. And if we know then we don’t utilize it because we fear what people would say. More than that there is our own voice shouting inside that you can do this. What if we stop listening to those voices and listen only to our heart.

I have observed many geological things during field work and some pictures below are describing about the beauty of geology. I have many pictures related to rocks, minerals, structures and other features. Some beautiful pictures are given below:

Hammering slates
Photo © Rana Faizan 
Plunging anticline fold observed during fieldwork.
Photo © Rana Faizan

Enjoying fieldwork after mapping sedimentary area
Photo © Rana Faizan 

Note: This article is originally written and contributed by Rana Faizan. You can also contribute your article by sending us at [email protected] We would love to share your field experiences with our readers. See guidelines here.

3D Geological Model of Pakistan

We are GLAD to inform you that one of our admin, Muhammad Qasim Mehmood with his team have prepared a geological model which was presented at All Pakistan Science Fest hosted by UET Science Society at 20/04/17. 

Here is the brief introduction of model:

It is a 3D geological model of Pakistan that shows mainly tectonic division of mountain ranges of Pakistan. The model demonstrates the major/famous deposits of Pakistan like Petroleum, Minerals/Gemstones, Uranium, Coal including other geographical features like dams and rivers.

It is a non-working model (size: 5
6 ft approximately) supported mainly by wooden boards and other cementing material. It is using thermocol sheets, maps, large paper sheets, graphs, paints and mechanical and scientific goods as per the requirement of a particular model.

This unique model cover the topics of Plate Tectonics, Structural Geology, Economic Geology and others. Also the students have added the future aspects of Geo-economics like Kalabagh Dam, CPEC route, oil and gas wells in Baluchistan and offshore wells in Arabian Sea near Gwadar.

The model is showing the following geological aspects of Pakistan:

1. Major Geological Basins of Pakistan i.e. Indus Basin and Balochistan Basin
2. Major Thrusts in Northern Pakistan
     Main Karakoram Thrust (MKT)
     Main Mantle Thrust (MMT)
     Main Central Thrust (MCT)
     Main Boundary Thrust (MBT)
     Salt Range Thrust / Himalayan Frontal Thrust
3.  Mountain Ranges of Pakistan
     Some mountain ranges of Pakistan is shown on the model located in North-West to              South-West of Pakistan which has important geological significance in distinguishing            Indus Basin from Balochistan Basin
4.  Famous Peaks of Pakistan
     Mount Godwin-Austen (k2) - World's 2nd highest peak
     Nanga Parbat ( The Killer Mountain) - World's 9th highest peak
     Tirich Mir - highest peak in Hindukush Range

5. Major Fuel of Pakistan
     Oil wells in Potwar Plateau and in Balochistan
     Gas wells in Sui, Balochistan - biggest gas reserve in Pakistan
     Coal reserves in Thar - World's 16th largest coal reserve in Pakistan
     Uranium reserves in Siwalik Hills west of Dera Ghazi Khan
6. Famous Gem Stone of Pakistan
    Emerald from Mingora, Swat 
    Aquamarine from Hunza Valley,Gilgit-Baltistan    Tourmaline from Skardu District, Gilgit Baltistan

And two future prospects for the improvement of Geo-economics of Pakistan:
1. Kalabagh Dam (to be made)
2. China Pakistan Economic Corridor -CPEC (construction under process) western route.

Following are some of the maps (obtained from internet) which we consider during the preparing of our model

Map showing Geological Basins of Pakistan
Source: GSP

Tectonic Map of Pakistan
Source: GSP

Political Map of Pakistan
Source: Unknown
Tectonic Map of Pakistan & India showing major regional thrusts
Source: Unknown
CPEC map
Source: CPEC website
And some photos captured during the preparation of model

Cutting of thermocol sheet

coloring thermocol sheet with finishing paint

Hasan creating "finishing of paint" with paint spatula scraper

final look of Stage 1
Umer Amin sketching map on model and fixing sticks for projections and heights

sketches of mountain ranges and river tributaries and sticks for average height of each range and peak
all things are made perfect due to plotting of each point according to longitude and latitude

 a great Atlas Book

maps and maps

a rough look of model showing mountain ranges made with Plaster of Paris
Completion of Stage 2

team work!!!

after using distemper paint

And finally after painting and drawing river tributaries, fixing sign boards of cities and much more, the model is:

 3D Geological Model of Pakistan

 3D Geological Model of Pakistan

Legend for the model

Geological tools, Gemstones, Rocks and Fuel (Coal and Crude Oil)
Featuring Qasim Mehmood (Co founder of Learning Geology), on left
Rana Faizan Saleem, my class mate and Founder of Geology for Beginners
Students of Institute of Geology, University of the Punjab