Carbonate Petrography

Carbonate petrography is the study of limestones, dolomites and associated deposits under optical or electron microscopes greatly enhances field studies or core observations and can provide a frame of reference for geochemical studies.

25 strangest Geologic Formations on Earth

The strangest formations on Earth.

What causes Earthquake?

Of these various reasons, faulting related to plate movements is by far the most significant. In other words, most earthquakes are due to slip on faults.

The Geologic Column

As stated earlier, no one locality on Earth provides a complete record of our planet’s history, because stratigraphic columns can contain unconformities. But by correlating rocks from locality to locality at millions of places around the world, geologists have pieced together a composite stratigraphic column, called the geologic column, that represents the entirety of Earth history.

Folds and Foliations

Geometry of Folds Imagine a carpet lying flat on the floor. Push on one end of the carpet, and it will wrinkle or contort into a series of wavelike curves. Stresses developed during mountain building can similarly warp or bend bedding and foliation (or other planar features) in rock. The result a curve in the shape of a rock layer is called a fold.

Showing posts with label palynology. Show all posts
Showing posts with label palynology. Show all posts

What is pollen?

Pollen is the male gametophyte of seed plants. Both gymnosperms (cone-bearing plants) and angiosperms (blooming plants) produce dust as a feature of sexual generation. In gymnosperms dust is created in microsporangiate cones (male cones or dust cones), while in angiosperms dust is delivered in the anthers (some piece of the stamen inside of the blossom). Every dust grain ordinarily comprises of one to a couple of cells. The dust's mass grain comprises of two layers, the exine (external divider) and intine (internal divider). The exine may be smooth or ornamented with spines, warts, granules, pores or wrinkles. The particular ornamentation allows the distinguishing proof of the dust grains. 

Dust is essentially scattered by creepy crawlies or wing. Wind-pollinated plants are called anemophilous, while creepy crawly pollinated plants are called entimophilous. It is the wind-pollinated plants that is the reason for anguish to numerous who are dust touchy. 

At the point when dust is discharged by wind-pollinated plants, just a little percent achieves an open shame or female cone. At the correct season, dust can be abundant to the point that billows of it can be seen radiating from vegetation exasperates by wind or shaking. Albeit a lot of this dust settles near the source, some is conveyed by long separations by the wind.

How can different pollen types be recognised?

Dust is the male gametophyte of seed plants. Both gymnosperms (cone-bearing plants) and angiosperms (blooming plants) produce dust as a feature of sexual generation. In gymnosperms dust is created in microsporangiate cones (male cones or dust cones), while in angiosperms dust is delivered in the anthers (some piece of the stamen inside of the blossom). Every dust grain ordinarily comprises of one to a couple of cells. The dust's mass grain comprises of two layers, the exine (external divider) and intine (internal divider). The exine may be smooth or ornamented with spines, warts, granules, pores or wrinkles. The particular ornamentation allows the distinguishing proof of the dust grains. 

Dust is essentially scattered by creepy crawlies or wing. Wind-pollinated plants are called anemophilous, while creepy crawly pollinated plants are called entimophilous. It is the wind-pollinated plants that is the reason for anguish to numerous who are dust touchy. 

At the point when dust is discharged by wind-pollinated plants, just a little percent achieves an open shame or female cone. At the correct season, dust can be abundant to the point that billows of it can be seen radiating from vegetation exasperates by wind or shaking. Albeit a lot of this dust settles near the source, some is conveyed by long separations by the wind.

Pollen in Palynology


Palynomorphs are extensively characterized as natural walled microfossils somewhere around 5 and 500 micrometers in size. They are extricated from sedimentary shakes and dregs centers both physically, by ultrasonic treatment and wet sieving, and artificially, by concoction assimilation to evacuate the non-natural division. Palynomorphs may be made out of natural material, for example, chitin, pseudochitin and sporopollenin. Palynomorphs that have a scientific classification depiction are now and then alluded to as palynotaxa. 

Palynomorphs structure a topographical record of significance in deciding the sort of ancient life that existed at the time the sedimentary development was set down. Accordingly, these microfossils give critical hints to the predominant climatic states of the time. Their paleontological utility gets from a wealth numbering in a large number of cells per gram in natural marine stores, notwithstanding when such stores are by and large not fossiliferous. Palynomorphs, on the other hand, for the most part have been devastated in changeable or recrystallized rocks. 

Ordinarily, palynomorphs are dinoflagellate sores, acritarchs, spores, dust, growths, scolecodonts (scleroprotein teeth, jaws and related components of polychaete annelid worms), arthropod organs, (for example, bug mouth parts), chitinozoans and microforams. Palynomorph minute structures that are inexhaustible in many silt are impervious to routine dust extraction including solid acids and bases, and acetolysis, or thickness detachment.