Carbonate Petrography

Carbonate petrography is the study of limestones, dolomites and associated deposits under optical or electron microscopes greatly enhances field studies or core observations and can provide a frame of reference for geochemical studies.

25 strangest Geologic Formations on Earth

The strangest formations on Earth.

What causes Earthquake?

Of these various reasons, faulting related to plate movements is by far the most significant. In other words, most earthquakes are due to slip on faults.

The Geologic Column

As stated earlier, no one locality on Earth provides a complete record of our planet’s history, because stratigraphic columns can contain unconformities. But by correlating rocks from locality to locality at millions of places around the world, geologists have pieced together a composite stratigraphic column, called the geologic column, that represents the entirety of Earth history.

Folds and Foliations

Geometry of Folds Imagine a carpet lying flat on the floor. Push on one end of the carpet, and it will wrinkle or contort into a series of wavelike curves. Stresses developed during mountain building can similarly warp or bend bedding and foliation (or other planar features) in rock. The result a curve in the shape of a rock layer is called a fold.

Showing posts with label shale. Show all posts
Showing posts with label shale. Show all posts

Different shale distributions in low resistivity log response.

                   First, we will start with a small introduction about the resistivity logs                                           

Resistivity log

Technique : produce a current in the adjacent formation and measure the response of the formation to that current.

Resistivity logs are used to:

• determine hydrocarbon-bearing versus water bearing zones

• indicate permeable zones

• determine porosity

By far the most important use of resistivity logs is the determination of hydrocarbon-bearing versus water-bearing zones. Because the rock’s matrix or grains are non-conductive and any hydrocarbons in the pores are also non-conductive, the ability of the rock to transmit a current is almost entirely a function of water in the pores. As the hydrocarbon saturation of the pores increases (as the water saturation decreases), the formation’s resistivity increases. As the salinity of the water in the pores decreases , the rock’s resistivity also increases.

Resistivity tools principle : there are two types of resistivity tool , The dual lateral log ( DLL ) and the induction log ( DIL ) both types measures the resistivity in three zones simultaneously.

LLD looks deep into reservoir

LLS Looks shallow into the reservoir

MSFL reads the resistivity close to the wellbore.

Low Resistivity response :

High deep resistivity means : HCs or Tight streak  { low porosity }

Low deep resistivity means : Shale or wet sand.

Shale: Shale is defined as a fine-grained, indurated detrital sedimentary rock formed by the consolidation (by compression or cementation) of clay, silt, or mud.

It is characterized by a finely stratified structure of laminae ranging from 0.1 to 0.4 mm thick. Shale contains an appreciable content of clay minerals or derivatives from clay minerals, with a high content of detrital quartz; containing at least 50% silt, with 35% clay or mica fraction, and 15% chemical or authigenic materials

In petrophysical analysis, shale volume is one of the key answers used later to correct porosity and water saturation for the effects of clay bound water, (CBW).

Shale distribution in shaly sand :


Shale can be distributed in several different ways, as shown below.

Laminated shale is a special case in petrophysical analysis. Standard models for porosity and saturation do not work.

Dispersed shale is usually composed of from clay minerals that form in place after deposition due to chemical reactions between the rock minerals and the chemicals in the formation water.

Structural shale is usually deposited as particles, grains, or clasts during the initial depositional phase. For example, the flooding of a river valley can carry mud or shale from surrounding areas.

Different shale distributions have different effect on the sand reservoir.

In a sand reservoir contain structure shale : it will affect the reservoir porosity

In a sand reservoir contain laminae shale : it will affect only the net pay of the reservoir

In a sand reservoir contain : it will affect the porosity and permeability of the reservoir and also it will lead to a shortcut in the resistivity log response , which may result in a miss lead in the interpretation of the reservoir porosity and saturation  , it could be interpreted as sand bearing water instead of a sand contain dispersed shale.

So, the question here is how to differentiate between them and to avoid this wrong interpretation ?!

Let’s assume that you have a 100% clean sand reservoir. So the total porosity of this reservoir is 30% and the sand grains will represent 70% of the volume of the reservoir

Hint : Porosity of sandstone is 30 % and porosity of shale is 10%

Case 1 :

In the case of the presence of structure shale ,

So in this case shale grains will replace sand grains ( volume of 70% ) , the shale will bring its 10% porosity with it.

In other words , The porosity will be enhanced by 10% in the volume of 70% of the sand

So , the porosity will increase by 70/10 and the total porosity will be = 37 %

Case 2 :

In the case of the presence of laminae shale , in this case shale will replace the whole reservoir ( 100 & ) and also will bring its own 10% porosity.

In other words , the porosity will be reduced from 30% to 10%
Case 3 :

In the case of the presence of dispersed shale , in this case shale we will replace the porosity  volume it self ( 30 % ) and as usual it will bring its own porosity.

In other words , the porosity will be reduced into 3% ( 30 / 10 )Summarized figure for the different shale distributions in shaly sand reservoir and it’s effect on the reservoir porosity.
Shale distribution model proposed by Thomas and Stieber (Tyagi et al. 2009). Here Vshale is the volume of shale, φtotal is the total porosity, φmax is the maximum porosity, and φsh is the porosity in shale

Conclusion :


So, we can differentiate between the three different types of shale distribution and according to the type we can make the right interpretation for the porosity and the saturation of the sand reservoir , also we will avoid the miss leading interpretation in the shortcut in the resistivity log.

Photo Credits: Ahmed Adel
Originally blog is written by Ahmed Adel